Category: facts about mental health

Facts About Mental Health – I The Concept

facts about mental health Result.

Instead it created a single insurer, primarily a version of Medicare.

Taiwan spends only 7 of its GDP on health care. It gonna produce maladjusted adults. While middle class mothers have become more permissive. Results of later studies. Concluded that ‘lowerclass’ mothers have probably become more restrictive in infant feeding and ilet training since World War I, with the result that the gap between them has tended to close.

facts about mental health Therefore in case anything, the evidence points in the opposite direction, Thus, it would appear that So there’s little evidence from these studies to support the view that the lowerclass child undergoes socialization experiences that are more favorable to his later personality than does the ‘middle class’ child.

Subsequent and more carefully designed studies of social class differences in childrearing practices have failed to confirm the findings of the Chicago study.

Throughout this period, middle class mothers been consistently more permissive ward the child’s expressed needs and wishes, less going to use physical punishment, and more accepting and equalitarian in dealing with the child than have lower class mothers. That said, american Journal of Psychiatry 108 dot ’81 90′. Dicks, Henry 1950 In Search of Our Proper Ethic. Just think for a moment. British Journal of Medical Psychology 23 dot 1 Eaton, Joseph 1951 The Assessment of Mental Health. As a result, similarly, ‘health’ refers to more than physical health.

facts about mental health Another ambiguity attends this phrase.

That is similar usage ‘mental health’ often means both ‘psychological’ wellbeing and mental illness.

So it’s not surprising that the combination of two such terms produces an elastic and ambiguous concept. It also stands for his emotional affective states, the relationships he establishes with others, and a quite general quality that let’s say, dicks and it’s questionable whether we ought to divest ourselves of them even if the community should let us. Look, there’re no clear guidelines as to the means of reaching this goal or even to therefore this idea of progress embodies a new conception of success.

Further, the mental health idea implies a tally new conception of moral and social progress in the type of self correctability, self perfectibility, inner growth, personal fulfillment, and inward and outward harmony, or the like.

Thus, for the mental health enthusiast, mental health becomes the standard for evaluating human behavior. We are persuaded to evaluate ‘ourselves’ looking at the ‘self development’ and maturity, No longer is it sufficient to measure achievement in tangible coin. Loads of information can be found easily on the web. We are ld that in identical way that we have achieved physical comfort through the instrumental application of knowledge and understanding we can achieve psychological mastery over the self. Kahl, Joseph 1953 Educational and Occupational Aspirations of Common Man Boys. Known harvard Educational Review 23. You see. McGrawHill. Usually, new York. Therefore the Midtown Manhattan Study 1962 Mental Health in the Metropolis. Therefore the Midtown Manhattan Study, by Leo Srole et al. Child Development 36 dot ‘869 886’. Therefore Shipman, Virginia 1965 Early Experience and the Socialization of Cognitive Modes in Children, Hess. Therefore a major depressive episode might be precipitated by a stressful life situation but also has genetic factors.

Loads of patients respond to treatment with antidepressant medication as well as psychotherapy.

Affective disorders involve a cyclical pattern of significant mood disturbance.

Disturbances in appetite, sleep, energy, concentration, and sexual interest are common symptoms. On p of that, risk factors include a family history and possibly psychosocial stressors. Substance use, especially hallucinogens and stimulants, can precipitate psychotic symptoms, and these may even endure beyond the period of substance use. Write and gonna be considered in the assessment and treatment of psychosis. So it’s clear that certain areas of the brain and certain neurotransmitters are involved, the precise cause is still unknown.

facts about mental health These patients often require a mood stabilizer as well as antipsychotic medication.

The majority of those affected are unable to maintain work or relationships and require supportive services to like shelter and food.

Treatment includes antipsychotic medication, comprehensive social services including social and occupational rehabilitation if possible, and substance abuse treatment if necessary. Cognitive problems like disorganization of thought processes also occur. Whenever allowing many to lead more productive lives, newer antipsychotic medications just like clozapine, olanzapine, and risperidone are able to treat more symptoms generally with fewer consequences. Whenever blunting of affective expression, and functional deterioration, psychotic disorders are characterized by positive symptoms just like hallucinations poverty of ideas. So it’s an implicit or explicit standard against which he measures the success and failure of his efforts and those of his colleagues, For the practitioner, additionally, the concept of mental health usually serves as a goal albeit an ambiguous one against which he can measure the current functioning of his patients and ward which he can direct his and their efforts. Thus mental health is put forward as the panacea for all social problems and for the wholesale improvement of mankind. American Sociological Review ‘574585’. Rosen, Bernard 1961 Family Structure and Achievement′ Motivation. With all that said… In the first half of the twentieth century psychoanalysis had a major impact, and talking cures began to be used by trained psychoanalysts, especially for private patients. Anyway, psychological theories and therapies have, however, played an important role in ideas about mental health and the treatment of the less severe forms of mental illness. Psychological theories also informed child and educational psychology and the mental hygiene movement that flourished in the United States in the early decades of the twentieth century, in which the focus was on improving and sustaining mental health through education, early treatment, and public health. Signs of physical dependence like withdrawal symptoms are often present, and the person spends a great deal of time involved in substancerelated activities, uses more of the substance than intended, is unable to cut down, and continues to use the substance despite social, occupational, or physical problems about it, with substance dependence.

facts about mental health Mostly there’re various self could have been physically hazardous, Substance abuse is defined as a maladaptive pattern of use indicated by continued use despite persistent or recurrent social, occupational, psychological, or physical problems caused or exacerbated by the use of the substance.

They can cause or complicate various medical and psychiatric illnesses. Whenever acknowledging the real poser, and wanting to change, the first steps of treatment involve developing insight. Substanceuse’ disorders are quite common and occur in all segments of society. You see, liver failure, ulcers, heart attacks, cognitive disorders, and depression are among the potential outcomes of various substances. They can lead to accidents, violent crime, and major problems in school and at work. These disorders pose major public health concerns for public safety, health costs, economic productivity, and pregnancy risks, among others. Basically the World Health Organization’s World Health Report 1998 lists mood and anxiety disorders among the leading causes of morbidity and mood disorders as the leading cause of severely limited activity.

facts about mental health More people die by suicide than homicide.

The National Comorbidity Survey of 1994 found nearly half of the individuals in its random sample had a psychiatric disorder over their lifetime, and almost 30 percent had one in the past year.

Suicide is the eighth leading cause of death in the United States and the third leading cause in the fifteen to twentyfouryearold age group. They cut across racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic lines to affect a significant proportion of communities worldwide. Seriously. Mental disorders account for a quarter of the world’s disability. Mental, or psychiatric, illnesses are a major public health concern. They adversely affect functioning, economic productivity, the capacity for healthy relationships and families, physical health, and the overall quality of life. Comorbidity is common and even further increases the risk of disability. They tend to develop and manifest in the early adult years, often preventing individuals from leading full and productive lives. Freud defined mental health in his programmatic statement. With all that said… Where id was, there shall ego be’. Thus, the psychoanalytic perspective focuses on the ‘intra psychic’ life of the individual. I know that the interpersonal frame of reference, likewise, is more concerned with the functioning of individuals in interpersonal situations. Nutritional deficiencies, infections, and heavy metal poisoning can all cause psychiatric syndromes.

facts about mental health Substance abuse contributes significantly to the exacerbation or even precipitation of other psychiatric illnesses and complicates their treatment.

Here the value is awareness of unconscious motivations and selfcontrol based upon these insights.

Definitions obviously vary with the perspective of the definers, the point of reference used, and the values considered important. Nevertheless, may also be the outcome of psychiatric illness and the inability to function independently, poverty and ‘homelessness’ are risk factors for lots of these problems. Nontraumatic stressors, including unemployment, bereavement, and relational or occupational problems, can impact mental health. Sullivan identifies a person’s drive ward mental health as those ‘processes which tend to improve his efficiency as a human being, his satisfactions, and his success in living‘ are known to threaten mental stability. Horwitz, in Creating Mental Illness, accepts that the boundaries of mental health and illness are set by society and tries to resolve the conflict between the two positions by stating that a condition is a valid mental illness or disorder if it involves a psychological dysfunction that is defined as socially inappropriate, and it’s socially useful to define the dysfunction as a disease.

These two positions reflect a long standing contest between those who espouse the biomedical model of mental disorder and wish to appropriate psychological problems to the domain of physical illness a process sociologists term medicalization and which is reflected in the expansion of psychiatric categories and those who wish to appropriate mental disorder to the social domain of behavior considered unacceptable or difficult.

Quite a few authors from different theoretical perspectives have argued that I know it’s only reasonable to talk of illness when So there’s a clear physical pathology.

That said, this position was developed by the psychotherapist Scheff in his prominent 1966 study Being Mentally Ill. Where there’s no biological pathology, Szasz stated, psychological problems gonna be termed problems in living and not regarded as illnesses whatsoever. Just keep reading. For the psychiatrist Thomas Szasz, who famously argued in 1961 that mental illness was a myth, so this meant recognizing that disorders like senile dementia are diseases of the brain. Equally controversial are related problems around the validity and boundaries of mental illness. Write with its overtly behavioral symptoms, from a rather different perspective, a range of sociologists has argued that mental illness, is best understood as a sort of deviance and not as illness. People afraid to speak in public are encouraged to take classes to was to decrease the stigma attached to mental illness by making mental health services more commonly available. Rather than institutionalize, the proliferation of ‘selfhelp’ support groups are also outgrowths of the efforts to personalize, mental health care. Self finding that one’s current socioeconomic status is even more closely associated with one’s mental health suggests that the effects of low socioeconomic status are probably cumulative in that the vulnerable personalities developed by finding of an inverse relation between socioeconomic status of parents and impaired mental health is particularly significant as it indicates that successively lower parental status carries for the child progressively greater likelihood of inadequate personality adjustment in adulthood. Fact, journal of Consulting Psychology 24 dot 288293″. Klein, Donald 1960 Some Concepts Concerning the Mental Health of the Individual. New Brunswick,. Just think for a moment. Press. Essays on Culture and Personality. Rutgers Univ. Frank, Lawrence 1948 Society as the Patient. Oftentimes and Scotch, Norman 1963 Sociocultural Factors in the Epidemiology of Schizophrenia, Mishler.

Psychiatry 26 dot 315351.

Such examples indicate that the causes identical for one disorder as for another.

Build up of serotonin might be a consequence of social and psychological experiences that are themselves better viewed as the cause of the depression. Even though psychiatrists often deploy a wider range of understandings in their practice, the biomedical model focuses on physical causes and the provision of physical treatments. In contrast to Alzheimer’ s, That’s a fact, it’s not clear that brain pathology is the cause of depression. Certainly, they also indicate that debates about causation that have so vexed discussions of mental illness depend in part on the choice of which causes to examine.

Consistent with medicine’ s interest in the body, psychiatry has developed a model of mental illness.

The search for physical causes has concentrated on inheritance, brain pathology, and biochemistry.

Biochemical processes in the brain are shown to underpin some mental illnesses, most obviously conditions like Alzheimer’ s disease. Consequently, there can be So there’s strong evidence of a genetic tendency for more severe mental disorders. Normally, whenever downplaying social and psychological factors, psychiatrists have tended to focus on physical causes and to give them primacy. Significantly data also indicate that social and behavioral factors, just like exercise as well as diet and obesity, play a part in the complex etiology of Alzheimer Biochemical changes in the brain are associated with other mental disorders. So there’s evidence, for example, that serotonin levels play a role in depression. Plenty of info can be found easily by going online. Most of us are aware that there is also evidence of environmental factors having a role, as an example, the evidence from a range of studies has shown that genetic factors play a role in the etiology of schizophrenia.

Earlier distinction widely used in the early postwar decades was between psychoses and neuroses, a contrast between more and less severe disorders that linked to symptom differences and ideas about causation.

As are usually disorders where there’s clear brain pathology, bipolar disorder is also placed in this category like the senile dementias.

Official classifications also include a range of conduct or personality disorders in which the main symptoms relate to behavior, just like antisocial personality disorder, anorexia nervosa, and substance use disorders, including alcoholism and drug addiction. In its third edition in 1980, the DSM decided to eschew etiology as a basis for classification shifting to a symptomatological categorization and excluding the term neurosis. Neuroses, just like anxiety states and phobias, were considered primarily disorders of emotion rather than thought and were held to have psychological causes.

The overall amount of mental disorders listed in the 1918 the DSM edition was 22, whereas by the fourth edition in 1995 it was nearly Such increases necessarily broaden the boundaries of mental disorder and narrow those of mental health, as indicated by Allan Horwitz.

Psychoses were held to be primarily disorders of thought and caused by biological factors.

Comparison of the different editions of the DSM is salutary. Psychoses were typified by the delusions and hallucinations of schizophrenia, the archetypical madness, associated with disturbed and sometimes difficult behavior. Then, personality disorders are usually first evident in late adolescence and are characterized by pervasive, persistent maladaptive patterns of behavior that are deeply ingrained and are not attributable to other psychiatric disorders. Somatoform disorders cause physical symptoms without any apparent medical cause. Just think for a moment. With restriction and binging and purging and impulse control disorders, other disorders described in DSMIV include eating disorders.

As well as developmental difficulties, biological and genetic factors are significant contributors.

Although most of us are aware that there is considerable disagreement as to the dynamics of the relationship between early experience and later personality, there actually is almost complete agreement among social scientists that the early experiences of the individual are of critical importance in personality development and in later adjustment.

So it’s readily apparent that amongst the most pervasive facts of the social structures impinging on the individual throughout his life cycle is the stratification system of his society. Human personality is to a large extent a product of the social learning experiences that the individual undergoes in the sociocultural environment in which he lives. Lots of information can be found easily online. And so it’s also generally accepted that personality continues to develop throughout the life cycle in response to learning experiences and environmental pressures which the person encounters in the performance of his social roles.

Basis for expecting this particular relationship rests on widely accepted assumptions regarding man and society.

This last observation is true not only as long as all societies have a system of stratification in which the members are differentiated into strata of unequal status but also because of the unique function of the family as a status ascription and socialization agency.

That’s not to say, however, that personality is wholly determined by social class. Accordingly the family of origin serves as the main link between the child and society, as long as in all societies the child is accorded similar status as his parents. Family’s position in the stratification structure will greatly affect the child’s choice of associates outside of the family, that in turn will go far in determining the social opportunities he will encounter throughout his life.

Its position in the stratification structure will to a large extent determine the social learning influences to which the child may be subjected in the course of the most formative periods of his life, since the family is the major agency charged with the early socialization of the child.

Certainly, one’s position in it should have a substantial bearing on his personality, Thus the stratification system should be seen as among the most important and continuous social contexts in which the individual’s developmental history takes place.

Possible influences on personality development to which the individual is subjected are many and varied and are by no means all class linked. Mental Hygiene 36 dot ‘456473’. Basically, clausen, John 1956 Sociology and the Field of Mental Health. Conrad, Dorothy 1952 Toward a More Productive Concept of Mental Health. New York. Russell Sage Foundation.. It might be concluded that mostly there’re good theoretical reasons for expecting an association between social class and personality development and adjustment.

a lot more needs to be known about the socialization experiences that members of the various classes undergo, particularly how these affect personality systems.

More systematic and theoretically informed studies of the role of social class in the etiology of mental illness are greatly needed.

Studies to date do not indicate a sizable relationship but suggest that lower class status is associated with socialization experiences that foster the development of needs, motives, attitudes, belief systems, ‘self conceptions’, cognitive modes, and styles of coping with stress which result in personality maladjustment. Is the claim that class variations in rates of mental illness are being that the way in which a social system functions over time to sort and sift persons with certain personality characteristics or vulnerabilities into social class positions. It is second, it’s argued that differences in the extent and nature of environmental stress in the various classes account for differences in rates. I know it’s clear that noone of these explanations has ever been subjected to anything approaching a scientifically adequate test, as we have seen in our examination of the research evidence so far available.

One finding from the studies of social class and mental illness which comes through most clearly is that the lowest social class has the highest incidence and prevalence of major psychiatric illness. They should be conveniently subsumed under three general notions, the explanations offered for this finding vary considerably. Studies thus far reported indicate that lowerclass children suffer from cognitive deficits that may seriously impede their later adjustments to school and adult roles. Another quite different recent emphasis in socialization research is renewed interest in cognitive development. You should take this seriously. In pursuing these goals, we have relied on medicine, psychology, and social science to produce more valid knowledge and techniques with which to serve this value. Thus, the importance of health, the faith in science and medicine, the reliance on technology to produce means for the ends declared desirable by experts, and the development of professional skill and specialization as attributes of the technology all combine to maintain and reinforce mental health as a value. This is the case. Virtually, mental health has become so esteemed that in about current and traditional American values in three ways.

In the twentieth century, human health is prized as it is in no other. In the United States, particularly, we have moved from valuing sheer physical health to cherishing the psychological wellbeing of the tal person. Second, it functions to preserve certain of them; therefore, So it’s a highly valued end in itself, it reflects and embodies lots of these values. Chapel Hill. Elder, Glen 1962 Adolescent Achievement and Mobility Aspirations. Known univ. Considering the above said. North Carolina, Institute for Research in Social Sciences. Although, obviously, the magnitude of the rate will depend on the inventories and the cutting points used in determining who is and who isn’t mentally ill.

Even the study just described is seriously defective being that it is based only on treated cases.

The results of the Midtown Manhattan Study, on the basis of a large probability sample of adults, are especially informative in that a consistent inverse relationship is found between socioeconomic status and poor mental health and a direct relationship between status and absence of significant symptoms of mental pathology.

Of the many variables tested, socioeconomic status was the one most clearly associated with mental health.

So that’s apparently true even for quite serious forms of mental illness. Evidence was mounting for some amount of time that the prevalence and incidence of mental illness in the community are much greater than the treated rates since many cases are either not treated or are handled by others than psychiatrists, mental health clinics, and mental hospitals. Of course, this relationship held whether parental socioeconomic status or the person’s own socioeconomic status was taken as the status measure, and it persisted when age and sex were controlled. Recently, attempts been made to obtain more satisfactory evidence concerning tal prevalence of mental illness by means of sample surveys in which clinical examinations or symptoms inventories are used to determine mental health status. Press.


Social Problems 210 218″.

Theory Practice Evaluation. So, HUNT,; and ROACH, ‘19591960’ Social Class and the Mental Health Movement, GURSSLIN,. There is some more information about this stuff here. Fromm, Erich, Community Programs for Mental Health. Harvard Univ. Now this lack of agreement will probably continue as the term was adopted for loads of purposes. You see, one conclusion, however, can be reached. Not only is it difficult to agree on its general application, but even in a single context it should be used in many different ways, the meaning of the term -mental health is ambiguous. Jahoda, Marie 1963 Mental Health. Volume 3, pages 1067 1079″ in Encyclopedia of Mental Health. Watts. New York. Despite the increasing number of research projects over the past decade, etiological problems remain unsolved and the field awaits conceptual clarification.

Interests of researchers in mental health span the entire range of human behavior from circumscribed biochemical problems to existential problems of living.

They clearly indicate that the lower classes have much higher rates for psychiatric illness, especially for psychoses, quite a few their findings are for treated prevalence and understate the tal prevalence of mental illness in the community.

Hollingshead and Redlich, in their study of social class and mental illness in New Haven, improved on the earlier studies by obtaining detailed classifications of all cases in treatment with a psychiatrist or under the care of a psychiatric clinic or mental hospital, by carefully assessing individual socioeconomic status, by taking a ‘citywide’ control sample of normal persons for comparative purposes, and by computing rates for treated cases of various kinds of mental types illness by class status. Harvard Univ.

Accordingly a related issue is whether mental health is to be seen as a relatively constant and enduring function of personality or as a momentary function of person and situation.


Press. TheoryPractice’ Evaluation. Needless to say, for example, Klein, Community Programs for Mental Health. This particular perspective is largely ignored or considered irrelevant by quite a few ideologists, practitioners, and researchers in the field of mental health. Psychoanalysis or some other type of psychotherapy is a corrective for unfortunate early development, It maintains that an individual acquires good mental health as a consequence of fortunate early socialization. Basically, the popularity of mental health as a desired value in the United States is in part about its advocacy by those in the mental health movement and in part to the growth of psychoanalytic theory and acceptance of psychotherapeutic practice in the past a few decades. Thus, the individual remains the unit of analysis, and psychological health is seen as a function of the individual’s unique, private intrapsychic development and life history. Recently, another view of mental health was put forward by the proponents of social psychiatry. Only a few authors, similar to Fromm, take a comprehensive view of mental health as a function of the tal society its dominant ideologies, assumptions, norms, values, institutions, and general style of life.

Now look, the orthodox psychoanalytic viewpoint that mental health is a property of individuals and a function of intrapsychic development and dynamics is still dominant. Subsequently, the unit of analysis was extended to include the patterning of an individual’s interpersonal relations. Well developed mental health organizations, both private and public, now exist in the United States at the national, state, and local levels. With a tal registered membership and volunteer participation exceeding one million persons, in 1960 the National Association for Mental Health reported that. There were some eight hundred affiliated local mental health associations in 42 states. So federal government, any state and many cities and counties have a department of mental health or a mental health officer.

NIMH also maintains links with the privately sponsored branches of the mental health movement.

Private and governmental agencies often join with practitioners to educate the public about mental illness and health, to urge persons to become concerned about their own and others’ psychological health, and to collect funds for research.

By the way, a network of federal governmental agencies, led by the National Institute of Mental Health, spent an ast sum for research, training, education, demonstration, and the building and development of treatment facilities. Known the ideologists are primarily interested in promoting psychological ‘wellbeing’ as a value and in encouraging action to prevent and eliminate mental illness. Action in the name of mental health has occasioned the development of three distinct groups whose membership may overlap but whose interests and functions are separable. Therefore, discussions of the concept of mental health naturally reflect the interests of the principal groups involved in the mental health movement.

Amidst the leading problems is whether mental health and mental illness might be conceptualized on identical continuum or on different continua that cut across each other.

It becomes necessary to specify their relationship, if mental health and mental illness are placed on different continua.

Accordingly a contrary view is that mental health is qualitatively different from mental illness and that a person can be both mentally healthy and mentally ill at identical time. As an advocate of the concept of positive mental health, jahoda maintains that the absence of certain qualities does not imply the presence of others. Conventional medical view holds that mental health is the absence of mental illness, that both terms represent the extreme ends of very similar continuum, and that the difference between the two states is one of degree. Conversely, the presence of creativity does not exclude the presence of severe anxiety, the absence of hallucinations does not imply the presence of accurate ‘selfappraisal’. Anyways, ‘happiness’ and ‘well being’ are for awhile being that they involve external circumstances as well as individual functioning.

She rules out certain criteria as for a while being that they are unsatisfactory for research purposes.

Statistical normality’ is also considered unsuitable on the grounds that the term is unspecific, bare of content, and won’t come to grips with the question.

So most comprehensive and definitive summary of the multiplicity of criteria used in defining mental health is that of Jahoda. Absence of disease,’ let’s say, is rejected as a criterion, not only because of the difficulty in circumscribing disease for any longer being that common usage of the term ‘mental health’ now includes something more than the mere absence of a negative value. Even if the differences between the for awhileer as marked, so the lowest social class had the highest rates. With the rate for the lowest class being twice that for the next highest class and almost three times as high as for the two highest classes, while there was no relationship between social class and the incidence of neuroses, the inverse relationship of class membership and psychoses remained.

High degree of acceptance of this value also seems associated with its congruence with the Protestant ethic.

Kingsley Davis were computed.

Therefore this finding is particularly for awhile being that it confirms the results of the earlier ecological and correlational studies. Wegrocki, Henry, Personality in Nature, Society, and Culture. New York. Notice. Let me tell you something. Edited by Harry Passow. Pages ‘163179’ in Work Conference on Curriculum and Teaching in Depressed Urban Areas, Columbia University, 1962, Education in Depressed Areas. Then again, deutsch, Martin 1963 The Disadvantaged Child and the Learning Process. New York. Columbia Univ, Teachers College. While relating socioeconomic status to scores on personality tests indicate a low but positive correlation between social class and the personality adjustment of the child, not reviewed here. There is a lot more info about it on this website.a great deal more is needed using better samples, a wider range of socialization practices, and better data gathering and data analysis techniques, some good work on socialization and social class has been done.

a lot more needs to be done to discover the full range of class differences in socialization practices and especially to determine their effects on personality development and adjustment in the various classes.

Retrieved October 27, 2015 from Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Community Planning and Development.

Retrieved January 16, 2015, from Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration,Results from the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Any Mental Illness Among Adults. This is the case. Retrieved October 23, 2015, from Mental Illness Among Adults. Retrieved October 23, 2015, from Disorder Among Children. Mental Health Findings, NSDUH Series H50, HHS Publication No.

Retrieved January 16, 2015, from https.// James,.

Mental Health Problems of Prison and Jail Inmates.

2010 Annual Homeless Assessment Report to Congress. That said, bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Retrieved January 16, 2015, from Anxiety Disorder Among Adults. Rockville. Retrieved January 16, 2015, from Depression Among Adults. Nonetheless, retrieved January 16, 2015, from. Now regarding the aforementioned fact… Retrieved January 16, 2015, from Disorder Among Adults. Blueprint for Change. Growth, development, and selfactualization, that include conceptions of self, motivational processes, and investment in living; integration, that refers to the balance of psychic forces in the individual, an unifying outlook on life, and resistance to stress; autonomy, that refers to the decisionmaking process, regulation from within, and independent action; undistorted perception of reality, including empathy or social sensitivity; environmental mastery, including the ability to love, adequacy in interpersonal relations, efficiency in meeting situation requirements, capacity for adaptation and adjustment, efficiency in problem solving, and adequacy in love, work, and play, These are attitudes ward the self, that include accessibility of the self to consciousness, correctness of the self concept, feelings about the self concept, and a feeling of identity. National Center for Mental Health and Juvenile Justice.

Delmar, Skowyra, Cocozza, Retrieved January 16, 2015, from of Mental Health Services and Treatment Among Children.

Retrieved January 2013, from Jahoda after that, summarizes what are to her the acceptable sets of criteria in current use.

National Healthcare Disparities Report. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality,Rockville. Now look, a Comprehensive Model for the Identification and Treatment of Youth with Mental Health Needs in Contact with the Juvenile Justice System. Retrieved January 16, 2015, from for Healthcare Research and Quality. Often has social causes; has significant social costs in the sort of dependency, incapacity, and unemployment; and may also lead, on occasion, to social disturbance and disruption, Poor mental health frequently creates personal distress for the individual and those around that individual. Social scientists have contributed to a series of related debates about the validity and boundaries of the concepts of mental health and illness, the social distribution and causes of mental illness, and the appropriate care and treatment of mental illness.

Mental health has attracted considerable attention from social scientists. Social scientists have also added to discussions about the ways to facilitate and enhance mental health, with the intention to a more limited extent. Many professionals accept that the drugs control symptoms rather than provide cures, in the start of the twentyfirst century psychotropic medications provide the dominant type of treatment for mental health problems, from the most to the least severe. Did you know that the challenges of asylums were among the reasons they have been increasingly replaced by biomedical approaches. They are also for agesterm basis, that increases the risks to patients, Some medications, notably the antipsychotics, have unpleasant consequences, and patients might be reluctant to take them except by compulsion. In the late 1930s electroconvulsive therapy and psychosurgery were introduced, and from the ‘mid 1950s’ a range of synthesized drugs began to be used starting with chlorpromazine, an antipsychotic. Given such disputes, not surprisingly a further major area of controversy concerns care and treatment. Treatments in the early twentieth century included drugs, just like morphine and chloral hydrate, and various forms of hydro and electrical therapy. That is interesting. The most influential therapeutic model was that of moral treatment, when charitable and public asylums were first established.

a lot of factors encourage the medical reliance on drugs. Therefore this social model, that was an important component of the ‘proinstitutional’ discourse that underpinned the establishment of asylums, was resource intensive and difficult to implement in practice, especially when asylums became ‘large scale’. They have gradually widened their sphere of operation and now function in institutions like schools, courts, and industry. For example, secondarily, And so it’s research; I know it’s only minimally prevention, Primarily, their concern is treatment. Therefore the importance of the mental health movement has enhanced the prestige and power of its practitioners, who range from psychoanalysts to marriage counselors. Although, little work is directed ward mental health as distinct from mental illness, lots of their activities are undertaken in the name of mental health. Freud, Sigmund, Mental Health and Mental Disorder. New York. Norton. I’m sure you heard about this. With far fewer mentally ill admitted to a psychiatric bed, in the ‘mid twentieth’ century there was a move ward community care. Even for those with more severe disorders. Therefore the extent and quality of community services have often been questioned. Mental health practice outside the asylum also expanded in the twentieth century.

In the twentieth century asylum attendants were transformed into mental health nurses, and a range of other professionals started to contribute to the care and treatment of those with mental health problems and to understandings about mental health and illness.

The movement began to promote positive mental health as a goal distinct from the elimination of mental illness.

Mental health emerged out of the concern with mental hygiene that gained its first adherents at first pace of the twentieth century, as an explanatory construct. Besides, originally, therefore this social movement focused on improving the wretched conditions in mental hospitals and providing better care and treatment for the mentally ill wherever they Now look, the emergence of the concept of mental health is closely about the growth of the mental hygiene movement in the United States and to the development of psychotherapeutic practice and personality research.

I know that the term mental health began to replace mental hygiene in the 1930s, and by the late 1940s it assumed an independent status with a growing and enthusiastic social movement operating in its name.

This shift in terms signified the start of the era of concern with the prevention of mental disorders rather than merely care and treatment and the broadening of focus to include all forms of social and psychological maladjustment rather than just the severely emotionally disturbed or psychotic.

In the 1920s interest shifted to promoting mental hygiene and establishing child guidance clinics. Crosscultural Studies. Normally, in the past 25 years many studies in both of these areas have appeared. Macmillan. Usually, reviews of much of this literature are available 1959 Culture and Mental Health. Remember, the two principal sources of research evidence on the relationship between social class and personality are studies of social class and the socialization of the child and studies of social class and mental illness.

New York.

Other phobias include simple phobia, just like fear of heights or specific animals, and social phobia, that is a marked and persistent fear of certain or all social situations, like speaking in public or being around others actually.

Some develop agoraphobia, or a fear of being in public places where their attacks might be triggered. In which actual or threatened death or severe injury is witnessed or experienced, one may develop post traumatic stress disorder, just after one experiences a traumatic event. Also, anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in the general population, and these disorders lead to both psychological distress and increased health care utilization.

Patients develop persistent concerns about having further panic attacks.

For all anxiety disorders, specific psychopharmacologic and psychotherapeutic techniques of treatment can be effective and complementary.

Panic disorder often manifests with somatic symptoms, like palpitations, chest pain, nausea, trembling, dizziness, and shortness of breath, and can be easily confused with a medical disorder by both patients and doctors. People with ‘obsessivecompulsive’ disorder have obsessions, characterized by recurrent or persistent thoughts, impulses, or images that are experienced as intrusive and inappropriate, and compulsions, characterized by repetitive behaviors or mental acts often performed in response to an obsession. Essentially, intrusive recollections of the event, avoidance of reminders of the event, and increased arousal can all cause significant distress and impairment following a variety of traumatic events, including an accident, military combat, torture, or rape. Generalized anxiety disorder is characterized by excessive and persistent anxiety or worry about heaps of events or activities, like work or school performance. Just think for a moment. American Sociological Review 24 dot ‘352366’.

Kohn, Melvin 1959 a Social Class and the Exercise of Parental Authority.

Without regard to the patient’s sociocultural context, in regards to adjustment to and acceptance of current societal norms. Fact, whenever conforming to this view, the study of definitions of mental health becomes a branch of the sociology of knowledge. Now look. Another view maintaining that mental health is a ‘value free’ concept equates it with the statistically normal. For instance, indeed, plenty of students of the field maintain that criteria of mental health can’t be established in complete independence from the particular values and ideology of the society or group in which they are formulated and applied. This kind of an approach, sociologically meaningful, can not settle the question of which criteria are the most useful for therapy and mental health research. Now pay attention please. There also are differences of opinion on if the concept of mental health is ever valuefree. These criteria are not value free. That said, evanston.

Row. Maccoby,; and Levin, 1957 Child Patterns Rearing, Sears. Princeton,. Maslow, Abraham 1962 Toward a Psychology of Being. Van Nostrand. It’s an interesting fact that the third problem involves the difficulties in intervention, implementation, and control that should remain even if conceptual expansion and the integration of relevant disciplines were achieved. A well-known fact that is. Whether they be expanded or integrated, rather an emergent from the human condition. Only a part of which can be planned for, perhaps so it’s not subject matter for academic disciplines. Now look, the first is the necessity for conceptual extension beyond the individual intrapsychic life, interpersonal relations, and limited social contexts. It should be that the ultimate goal of positive mental health for all will continue to elude us as one of our persistent human limitations. From one perspective, the poser of mental health is identical with the eternal question of how to lead the good life. Besides, the mechanisms for applying this meager knowledge and effecting the ends sought are extremely inadequate. You can find some more info about it on this website. Of the many problems that need resolution, three are central. For a while because it involves quite a few sides of human living, the second problem concerns this very scope of the mental health conception, that, demands an integration of the biochemical, psychological, social, and philosophical disciplines that isn’t yet in sight.

How much planning of this kind is desirable, even if mental health can be achieved by rational planning.

Despite the expansion of the mental health movement and the prestige of the professionals involved with it, little is known about how to achieve mental health. Normally, for now this framework is insufficient for understanding mental health, that also needs to be seen as a function of social roles, institutions, and communi ties. And now here is a question. Would it not threaten other cherished values, or have consequences that we can not now foresee? Known perhaps we need to raise the big poser of how much mental health can be achieved by science and planning. So, an essential criterion for defining behavioral patterns or symptoms of psychological distress as a mental disorder is that they become significant enough to be functionally disabling and impose substantial increased risks ranging from an important loss of freedom to suffering pain, disability, or death.

Mental health and illness, idiosyncratic beliefs and delusions, sadness and depression, and worry and severe anxiety lie on a continuum.

Mental health does not imply the absence of distress and suffering, or strict societal conformity.

Healthy pregnancy, adequate parenting, secure attachments to caretakers, regular involvement in groups, and stable intimate relationships all contribute to the development and maintenance of mental health. Basically, by restricting the variables to be dealt with, it may neglect significant and, perhaps, crucial phenomena. Now regarding the aforementioned fact… Broader orientation opens up greater possibilities of discovering the various interconnections between the variables involved. It affords greater opportunity for intervention and control, The psychotherapeutic orientation is much more specific about the nature of the phenomena to be affected, be they biochemical, individual, or social.

These contrasting orientations have different privileges and disadvantages in achieving mental health objectives.

Other students of the field hold that the criteria for mental health, though value laden, can transcend situational or cultural boundaries and that an area of general value consensus can be arrived at.

Smith has suggested that universal criteria for mental health therefore the possibility that mentally ill persons have drifted from the better into the poorer areas of the city after the onset of their illness; and reliance on purely ecological correlations, Ecological studies of this kind was criticized because of bias arising from socioeconomic selection in first admissions to mental hospitals.


The largest body of evidence on the relation of social class to personality comes from the findings of quite a few studies of social parts of mental illness.

Whereas mobility may result in I know it’s also likely that certain personality characteristics including psychiatric symptoms may that concentrates on the individual’ s ways of thinking and is seen by lots of psychologists throughout the 1950s turned their focus ward the promotion of mental health.

And therefore the Myth of Mental Illness.

CBT is influenced by positive psychology, which is a set of ideas that seeks to encourage individuals to focus on what can give meaning in lifespan, especially their strengths.

Psychological therapies like physical remedies mainly concentrate on dealing with mental health problems that have already developed and not on mental health maintenance and prevention, this place to which social scientists have arguably more to contribute. Whenever ranging from the relatively severe and less common, like schizophrenia, to the less severe and a lot more common, like mild forms of depression and anxiety, the kinds of mental types illness identified by psychiatrists are diverse. Classifications have varied enormously over time, and throughout the second half of the twentieth century there were major attempts to systematize and standardize mental illnesses to improve the reliability of psychiatric diagnosis. Two classifications do not group mental disorders in similar way. This is the case. In the twenty first century two major classifications were developed. American Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and the listing of mental disorders in The International Classification of Diseases. Holt.

Bronfenbrenner, Urie 1958 Socialization and Social Class Through Time and Space.

New York.

Pages ‘400425’ in Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues, Readings in Social Psychology. These were followed first by small private madhouses in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and, from first pace of the nineteenth century, by charitable and public asylums, In Europe a few institutions for lunatics were set up in the medieval period. With doctors usually the key figure of authority, they’ve been mainly staffed by untrained attendants. Modern day’ medical ideas about mental illness have largely been developed in psychiatry, a medical specialty that emerged as a profession in the ‘midnineteenth’ century from the associations of doctors working in charitable and public asylums that catered for and had powers of detention.

As the century progressed asylums became increasingly ‘large scale’.

a few studies illustrating this trend might be briefly mentioned.

Still other studies have shown that middle class adolescents are trained to defer their gratifications and lowerclass youths to satisfy their current needs. Oftentimes many other studies show that ‘middle class’ parents, in comparison with lower class parents, place more stress on values which result in high levels of aspiration and achievement in the educational and occupational spheres. Generally. Possibly because of these findings, for awhile being that empirical research has cast doubt on the importance of ilet training and infant feeding practices for later personality, recent studies of social class and personality development have tended to place less emphasis on infant training and more stress on ‘parentchild’ relationships extending into childhood and adolescence.

While lower class parents focus on the child’s actions and respond in accordance with the seriousness of the act, middleclass’ parents tend to respond to misbehavior regarding the child’s intent and to keep in mind his motives and feelings.

So there’s evidence that middleclass parents are less authoritarian in their relations with their adolescent children than lower class parents but have higher expectations of them.

While working class parents stress respectability, kohn finds that ‘middle class’ parents emphasize internalized standards of conduct, including honesty and ‘self control’, obedience, neatness, and cleanliness. Actually. Popular Conceptions of Mental Health. So, their Development and Change. For example, nunnally, JUM JR. New York. With that said, it was argued that depression is due not only to the frequency of adverse life events but also to difficult circumstances and low levels of social support, that affect coping and its adverse vulnerability. Anyways, data on the distribution of mental disorders across populations also display a marked social patterning.

Link between socioeconomic status and mental illness applies to other disorders, like depression.

There’s also a marked patterning by gender.

Within any given society data indicate that schizophrenia is more common among groups with lower socioeconomic status and that this difference can’t be adequately accounted for by individuals with schizophrenia drifting down the socioeconomic scale. For instance, So there’re also ethnic differences in the patterning of mental disorder. Whereas levels of schizophrenia are roughly identical for men and women, depression and anxiety are way more common in women than men, and personality and conduct disorders are more common in men. Generally, although some will argue that in loads of studies show that early childhood experiences affect mental health and that external stresses can lead to mental disorder. Doesn’t it sound familiar? International studies show that a condition similar to schizophrenia is common across a vast selection of societies. Evidence of the importance of social and psychological factors to mental health comes from a range of studies. In the United Kingdom, let’s say, a 1997 study by James Nazroo showed that schizophrenia is more commonly diagnosed in ‘Afro Caribbean’ men than in other social groups, though the reasons for this are not entirely clear.

Part of this difference appears to be due to gender socialization and differing expectations as to appropriate emotions and behavior.

Clark, Robert 1948 The Relationship of Schizophrenia to Occupational Income and Occupational Prestige.

American Sociological Review 13 dot 325330″. Leuba, Clarence 1960 The Mental Health Concept. On p of this, american Psychologist 15 dot ‘554 555’. For example, the field of mental health has made many advances, particularly since These developments include an increased understanding of the brain’s function through the study of neuroscience, the development of effective new medications and therapies, and the standardization of diagnostic codes for mental illnesses. Plenty of questions about mental health remain unanswered, and many people globally are unable to benefit from the knowledge and treatments that are available. Anyway. New York. Therefore a Inquiry Into the Psychology of Ethics. Remember, fromm, Erich 1947 Man for Himself. Known in many contexts the term mental disorder, that has fewer medical connotations, is used. In European and North American societies medical understandings, that draw on a range of scientific ideas, tend to be dominant and inform much lay discourse, especially about mental illness.

Basically the use of the language of health and illness reflects the role doctors have played in offering care and treatment for psychological problems.

Magical or religious ideas relating to mental illness have not entirely disappeared from lay understandings, just like when people think a mental or physical illness is a judgment of God or that health is a matter of luck and good fortune.

As well as the ideas themselves, the impact of scientific ideas has varied historically and ‘cross culturally’, and there was times and places when the understandings are magical or religious rather than scientific. Individual or his immediate social environment is the unit for analysis, attempted control, and change. Mental health is seen as the sum tal of the individual personality, and the field of work associated with it’s a superordinate, ‘allinclusive’ science of man. Notice, on the one hand, mental health is seen as a restricted and circumscribed state of being and as the subject matter of a field of work that is a specialty among other specialties.

As a subject matter, orientations ward mental health as a desirable objective and as a field of work, knowledge, and inquiry oscillate between two poles.

Community mental health centers were established for outpatient treatment, emergency service, and shortterm hospitalizations.

Professional therapists and paraprofessionals consulted with schools, courts, and similar local agencies to devise and maintain prevention programs, particularly for young people. Halfway houses enabled formerly ill patients to make an easier transition back to everyday life. Needless to say, youth centers provided an available source of counseling for jobs and personal problems. Considering the above said. Hot lines became staffed 24 hours a day in attempts to prevent suicide and child abuse. In the United States, the Community Mental Health Centers Act of 1963 attempted to localize and individualize the promotion of personal well being.

Actually the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Following descriptions of various mental disorders are depending on DSM IV criteria. Hafner. Did you know that a Ecological Study of Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses. Also, new York. Dunham, Warren (1960 Mental Disorders in Urban Areas, Paris. British Journal of Sociology 109 124″. That’s right! Lewis, Aubrey 1953 Health as a Social Concept. Edited by Helen Swick Perry and Mary Ladd Gawel. New York. Considering the above said. Published posthumously. Just think for a moment. Norton. Sullivan, Harry Stack 1954 The Psychiatric Interview. What really was needed is nothing less than a complete theory of the relation between the individual and society.a certain amount those who maintain that all definitions of mental health are culture bound hold that multiple criteria should’ve been used, according to the values cherished by every society or subculture. Its clarification and resolution are critical in identifying the field of interrelated variables that are relevant to the study of mental health, this issue is rarely discussed. Furthermore, the real issue we have that of the relation of the mental health of a person to the nature of the society in which he lives. Thus, criteria for mental health in the lower classes may have to be different from those for the middle classes, and those for citizens of Japan would have to differ from those for India or the United States.

Facts About Mental Health – Don’t Call People Words Like Crazy” Or Mental

facts about mental health Tennis players need to vary the protein, carbohydrate, and fat content of the foods they eat to gain the competitive edge, to play better and win more. People diagnosed with mental illnesses can get better.

Like a friend or a doctor, a lot of people feel better when they talk to someone, or take medication.

Every illness is different. Most people need define how to live with their illness. Also, you have to be patient, get help, and talk about it -and you’ll start to feel better, very similar, in a way. It won’t get better with just aspirin, if you have a broken leg. Therefore, it also takes time and exercise and hard work. Undoubtedly it’s common for all people to sometimes have trouble at school, in the apartments, at jobs and feel sometimes like they don’t know what to do.

facts about mental health What actually is true, Therefore if you hear something that is not true. Learn about mental wellness and share it with others. Nevertheless, try to get to know them and notice their talents and skills, not simply their illness, I’d say in case you know people with mental health challenges.

Make sure you do not call people words like crazy or mental. You can actually, a person with a mental illness has enough chances to be the one who gets hurt or bullied by somebody else. Of course most people diagnosed with mental illnesses are not violent. Most violence worldwide ain’t caused by people with mental illnesses. You can’t cause other people to have a mental illness. Doctors think that mental illness is caused by a mix of what’s going on in your body and what’s happening around you. Mental illness ain’t caused by doing something wrong. Mental illness has nothing to do with how smart you are.

Facts About Mental Health – What Are The Symptoms Of Irregular Periods

facts about mental health Dr. Be Who You Really Are! So it’s amid the least discussed pics amongst American families, in spite the fact that mental illness affects millions of families in the alone.

Mental illness is a serious disease not unlike a disease like cancer or ALS that attacks the sufferer’s body.

Just like any other disease it requires special treatment in the kind of mental health therapy. We have 4 facts about mental health counseling that you probably did not know. So, many families have even described it as a taboo subject in their home. Needless to say, mental illnesses are typically caused by hormonal imbalances which are not possible to control by sheer force of will. Actually, quite a few brightest people on planet earth also suffered from mental illness.

facts about mental health So an illness of this form is no one’s fault, and in no way makes the patient inferior.

The first thing to know is that if you suffer from mental illness, it does not mean you are flawed in any way.

Ernest Hemingway, Abraham Lincoln, Sylvia Plath, and Vincent Van Gogh are just a few names from the list. By getting treatment, hundreds of patients are able to recover from their condition completely. Key is getting I’d say in case not expressed properly. Let’s say, they are dealing with their grief at the loss of a loved one.

Making the condition become chronic, because any intensely depressive episode in your lifetime can lead to more in the future.

Often it should take a little nudge from a trusted friend before someone will ever even admit they have a huge problem and seek out they’ve been making the problem and needed to get over it? Then again, encourage them and support them in getting help, if you know someone who is struggling. With all that said… Will you tell them not to seek help, I’d say in case you knew someone with cancer. Not.

Doing so may save their life, you may have to offer to help them schedule the appointment and take them to the first few sessions.

But Most Of These Disorders Can Be Minor – Facts About Mental Health Disorders

Keeping your body healthy is important for many people as And so it’s a way to check if the body will respond to the things that happen around the person in the right way.

It may not affect the way that a person lives, whenever it is solved.

Most of these disorders can be minor. If a person does not act stright away, his mental health may turn weak and the simple disorder may turn into a life threatening one. Look, there’re many kinds of disorders types under mental health. Therefore, thus So there’s a big risk for anyone to experience at least one disorder.

Now look, the patient must consult with a doctor or a therapist, to put an end in most mental health disorders. His body will function normally and his line of thinking will also be correct since By which he gonna be given the right medications. Acceptance and understanding of what’s happening my be the key to solve the serious issue. It’s possible to overcome. Make sure you do not let Panic control you!